Apush 1680

Shared Flashcard Set. Description Terms for Chapter 2. Total Cards Subject History. Level 10th Grade. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Supporting users have an ad free experience! Flashcard Library Browse Search Browse. Create Account. Additional History Flashcards. Term Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand. Definition 15th century Spanish king and queen who united the kingdoms of Iberia, drove out the Moors, began the Inquisition, expelled the Jews, and sponsored Columbus' expeditions to the West.

Helped initiate columbian exchange. Term Christopher Columbus. Definition Genoese mariner who, while attempting to sail west to reach China, accidentally discovered" America for the Europeans.

Term Prince Henry the Navigator. Definition Portuguese prince and patron of ocean navigation; sponsored exploration of Atlantic islands and conquest of African coastal ports; supported modernizaqtion of maps and navigation instruments and ships. Term Amerigo Vespucci. Definition 15th and 16th century Italian merchant and navigator whose New World voyages inspired German map maker to name the New World after him: America"".

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Term Ferdinand Magellan. Definition Portuguese navigator, sailing for Spain, led first expedition to circumnavigate the globe in ; died in the Philippines proved that America is its own continent hit the pacific on the other side. Term Hernan Cortes. Definition Spanish conquistador who led conquering expedition to Mexico in ; with a handful of men and horses, he overcame Aztec king with the help of disgruntled Indian allies.It occurred August 13,in Spanish controlled New Mexico. The major missions at Tao's, Pecos, and Acma were burned.

Pope was the leader of the revolt and installed himself as an absolute dictator.

apush 1680

Pope was every bit as oppressive as the Spanish. For 8 years he extorted taxes from his people and executed anyone who resisted. By Pope's death inthe Pueblos were in a constant state of civil war. By the Pueblos were once more under Spanish rule. The Pueblo Revolt is better described by Lauren than by tuffy.

apush 1680

I would like to add though that that Acoma was never burned by the Spanish, it was one of the few missions and pueblos that survived. Also, Po'pay wasn't a 'dictator'. He'd had dealings with the Spanish before and was even arrested and imprisoned by them for awhile on charges of suspected sorcery.

He simply knew more about what the Spanish were capable of and instilled himself as a leader. Which is something that was very beneficial to the Pueblo peoples. During the 12 years of Pueblo independence, Po'pay quickly lost any power that he had gained during the formulation and completion of the Revolt of Pope was the name of the leader of the Pueblo Indians, who in successfully revolted against the Spanish colonists.

As a result the Indians retaliated and executed Spanish soldiers, and exiled the other from the area. For 12 years the Indians were successfully able to keep the Spanish out.

This revolt was known as the Pueblo Revolt. By Pope had died and Pueblos were in a state in of civil war. As a result, it made their forces weaker, and the Spanish retook possession of their territory in Significance- This was one of the first major indian revolts which was successful in expelling the colonizers. It also showed the increasing level of resistance between the Spanish and the Indian tribes, which they were attempting to drive, in order to claim the territory for Spain.

When did it occur? Where did it occur? Answer Save. Pueblo Revolt Definition. Lindsay Baumgartner. How do you think about the answers? You can sign in to vote the answer. Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.The Pueblo Revolt was a uprising of the Pueblo Indians against the Spanish who ruled the southwest. In preparing to answer Pueblo Revolt APUSH questions, you should be familiar with Spanish patterns of colonization that led to this uprising, as well as the consequences of the revolt.

For many years, the Spanish dominated the New World. They pushed northward into what is now the southwestern United States. When they reached New Mexico, however, they faced their greatest resistance—in the form of the Pueblo Revolt. They responded to native resistance with cruelty and terror.

The Pueblos suffered greatly under the Spanish encomienda system, a forced labor system that essentially amounted to slavery. In addition, many of their cultural traditions were prohibited, including their religion as they were violently forced to convert to Catholicism.

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Eventually, the Pueblos organized and retaliated. The large-scale, coordinated attack was too much for the Spanish to resist. The group successfully maintained independence from Spanish for a dozen years.

It pointed to problems inherent in the Spanish style of colonization, as well as to the power that Native Americans could wield through collective resistance. B permanently expel the Spanish from New Mexico. C put an end to the encomienda system of labor. D hold off Spanish forces when greatly outnumbered. The correct answer is A. The Pueblos were able to drive the Spanish from the area and gain control, even if it was only for a few years.

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High School Blog. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.The Stono Rebellion was a major slave revolt in the colonial South.

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The site of the rebellion. Photo by ProfReader. The Stono Rebellion was the largest slave revolt in the British colonies. On September 9,a group of about 20 South Carolina slaves assembled and marched to a firearms store. There, they killed the shopkeepers and armed themselves. Their intention was to escape to Spanish-controlled Florida, where it was rumored they would be granted freedom and lands. On their way, they added to their numbers, gathering a force of around slaves.

They marched through town, killing nearly any whites they came across, which totaled by the end. The group was met and put down by the South Carolina militia. Most of the rebels not killed in the ensuing battle were captured and soon executed.

The slave revolt was unsuccessful, and it ended up making things worse for slaves in the colony. In response to the uprising, South Carolina soon passed the Negro Act of It also made it harder for slave-owners to free their slaves called manumission by requiring government approval for each grant of freedom. The government believed that the presence of free blacks in the colony would make slaves more restless and likely to rebel. In some ways, however, the rebellion had positive effects.

Masters were prohibited from demanding excessive labor or using brutal methods of punishment. These measures were very difficult to enforce, however, since slaves had no legal right to testify against whites. The Stono Rebellion changed slavery in colonial America primarily by A increasing support for abolition throughout the northeast.

B resulting in tighter government control over the activities of both slaves and masters. C growing the African slave trade and increasing the number of colonial slaves. D making it easier for slaves to earn their freedom, increasing the proportion of free blacks. The correct answer is B. The Stono Rebellion was put down quickly, but not before loss of life on both sides. The revolt was large enough to gain government attention.

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High School Blog. Anna says:. October 1, at am. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.The Great Pueblo Revolt, or Pueblo Revolt [AD ], was a year period in the history of the American southwest when the Pueblo people overthrew the Spanish conquistadors and began to rebuild their communities.

The events of that period have been viewed over the years as a failed attempt to permanently expel Europeans from the pueblos, a temporary setback to Spanish colonization, a glorious moment of independence for the pueblo people of the American southwest, or part of a larger movement to purge the Pueblo world of foreign influence and return to traditional, pre-Hispanic ways of life.

It was no doubt a bit of all four.

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After a "trial", everyone over the age of 12 was enslaved; all men over 25 had a foot amputated. Roughly 80 years later, a combination of religious persecution and economic oppression led to a violent uprising in Santa Fe and other communities of what is today northern New Mexico.

It was one of the few successful--if temporary--forceful stoppages of the Spanish colonial juggernaut in the New World. As they had done in other parts of the Americas, the Spanish installed a combination of military and ecclesiastical leadership in New Mexico. The Spanish established missions of Franciscan friars in several pueblos to specifically break up the indigenous religious and secular communities, stamp out religious practices and replace them with Christianity.

According to both Pueblo oral history and Spanish documents, at the same time the Spanish demanded that the pueblos render implicit obedience and pay heavy tribute in goods and personal service. Active efforts to convert the Pueblo people to Christianity involved destroying kivas and other structures, burning ceremonial paraphernalia in public plazasand using accusations of witchcraft to imprison and execute traditional ceremonial leaders.

The government also established an encomienda systemallowing up to 35 leading Spanish colonists to collect tribute from the households of a particular pueblo. Hopi oral histories report that the reality of the Spanish rule included forced labor, the seduction of Hopi women, raiding of kivas and sacred ceremonies, harsh punishment for failing to attend mass, and several rounds of drought and famine. Many accounts among Hopis and Zunis and other Puebloan people recount different versions than that of the Catholics, including sexual abuse of Pueblo women by Franciscan priests, a fact never acknowledged by the Spanish but cited in litigation in later disputes.

While the Pueblo Revolt of was the event that temporarily removed the Spanish from the southwest, it was not the first attempt. The pueblos had offered resistance throughout the year period following the conquest. Public conversions didn't always lead to people giving up their traditions but rather drove the ceremonies underground. The JemezZuni and Taos communities each separately and unsuccessfully revolted.

The Pueblos were independent societies before Spanish rule, and fiercely so. What led to the successful revolt was the ability to overcome that independence and coalesce.

Pueblo uprising of 1680

Some scholars say that the Spanish unwittingly gave the Pueblo people a set of political institutions that they used to resist colonial powers. In some respects, the battle was one of whose god was on whose side: both Pueblo and Spanish sides identified the mythical character of certain events, and both sides believed the events involved supernatural intervention.

Po'Pay may have been key, but there were plenty of other leaders in the rebellion. Under the rule of colonial New Mexico, the Spanish deployed ethnic categories ascribing "pueblo" to lump linguistically and culturally diverse people into a single group, establishing dual and asymmetric social and economic relationships between the Spanish and Pueblos.

Po'pay and the other leaders appropriated this to mobilize the disparate and decimated villages against their colonizers. After eight decades of living under foreign rule, Pueblo leaders fashioned a military alliance that transcended longstanding rivalries. For nine days, together they besieged the capital of Santa Fe and other pueblos. In this initial battle, over Spanish military personnel and colonists and 21 Franciscan missionaries lost their lives: the number of Pueblo people who died is unknown.

Witnesses said that during the revolt and afterward, Po'Pay toured the pueblos, preaching a message of nativism and revivalism.

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He ordered the pueblos to break up and burn the images of Christ, the Virgin Mary and other saints, to burn the temples, smash the bells, and separate from the wives the Christian church had given them. Churches were sacked in many of the pueblos; idols of Christianity were burned, whipped and felled, pulled down from the plaza centers and dumped in cemeteries. Between anddespite the efforts of the Spanish to recapture the region, the Pueblo people rebuilt their kivas, revived their ceremonies and reconsecrated their shrines.

There were many others. The architecture and settlement planning at these new villages was a new compact, dual-plaza form, a departure from the scattered layouts of mission villages. Liebmann and Pruecel have argued that this new format is what the builders considered a "traditional" prehispanic village, based on clan moieties.

Some potters worked on reviving traditional motifs on their glaze-ware ceramics, such as the doubled-headed key motif, which originated AD New social identities were created, blurring the traditional linguistic-ethnic boundaries that defined Pueblo villages during the first eight decades of colonization.

Inter-pueblo trade and other ties between pueblo people were established, such as new trade relationships between Jemez and Tewa people which became stronger during the revolt era than they had been in the years before Others included Pedro Romeros de Posada in and Domingo Jironza Petris de Cruzate in Cruzate's reconquest was particularly bloody, his group destroyed Zia pueblokilling hundreds of residents.

But the uneasy coalition of independent pueblos wasn't perfect: without a common enemy, the confederation broke into two factions: the Keres, Jemez, Taos and Pecos against the Tewa, Tanos, and Picuris. The Spanish capitalized on the discord to make several reconquest attempts, and in August ofthe new governor of New Mexico Diego de Vargas, initiated his own reconquest, and this time was able to reach Santa Fe and on August 14th proclaimed the "Bloodless Reconquest of New Mexico".The Bering Isthmus was crossed by people going into North America.

Evidence suggests that early people may have come to the Americas in crude boats, or across the Bering Isthmus. Unlike in Mexico with the Aztecs, dense populations did not exist in North America. This may have made it easier for the Europeans to colonize the continent.

People of Europe were able to reach sub-Saharan Africa around when the Portuguese invented the caravela ship that could sail into the wind. This ship allowed sailors to sail back up the western coast of Africa and back to Europe. The Portuguese set up trading posts along the African beaches trading with slaves and gold, trading habits that were originally done by the Arabs and Africans.

The Portuguese shipped the slaves back to Spain and Portugal where they worked on the sugar plantations. Columbus was actually looking for a new trading route with the Indies when he stumbled upon the Americas. The Columbian Exchange refers to the increase of global commerce globalization. Within 50 years of the Spanish arrival in Hispaniolathe Taino natives decreased from 1 million people to people due to diseases brought by the Spanish.

In the 'sSpain became the dominant exploring and colonizing power. The Spanish conquerors came to the Americas in the service of God as well as in search of gold and glory. Due to the gold and silver deposits found in the New World, the European economy was transformed. The islands of the Caribbean Sea served as offshore bases for the staging of the Spanish invasion of the mainland Americas. By the s in Mexico and the s in Perucolorless colonial administrators had replaced the conquistadores.

Some of the conquistadores wed Indian women and had children. These offspring were known as mestizos and formed a cultural and biological bridge between Latin America's European and Indian races. In aboutHernan Cortes set sail from Cuba with men and horses.

Along the way, he picked up two translators - A Spanish prisoner of Mayan-speaking Indians, and an Indian slave named Malinche. The Spaniards arrived at Tenochtitlanthe Aztec capital with the intention of stealing all of the gold and other riches; they were amazed by the beauty of the capitol.

On June 30,the Aztecs attacked the Spanish because of the Spaniards' lust for riches. The Spanish countered, though, and took over the capital and the rest of the Aztec empire on August 13, Due to the rule of the Spanish, the Indian population in Mexico went from 20 million to 2 million in less than a century. Inthe Spanish built a fortress at St. Augustine, Florida to protect the sea-lanes to the Caribbean.

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Inafter the Spanish captured an area known today as New Mexico inthe natives launched a rebellion known as Pope's Rebellion. The natives burned down churches and killed priests. They rebuilt a kivaor ceremonial religious chamber, on the ruins of the Spanish plaza at Santa Fe.Spaniards had dominated them, their lives, their land, and their souls for eight decades. Now, rising virtually as one, the Pueblos drove out Spanish soldiers and authorities. The rebels allowed many Spaniards to flee, but twenty-one Franciscan priests died at their hands, and they sacked mission churches across their land.

It took twelve years for Spanish troops to reconquer Pueblo country. They never did conquer the Hopi, who had been the westernmost contributors to the rebellion. Three hundred and thirty years later, Pueblo people still live in ancient villages across the Southwest, in many ways on their own terms. The Pueblo Revolt was the greatest and most successful rebellion of its sort in North American history. What happened? What did it signify?

What did it achieve? Backed by armed force and not reluctant to use the whip, Catholic missionaries had set out to destroy the ancestral Pueblo world in every respect, including what people could believe and how they could marry, work, live their lives, and pray.

When the rebels could capture Franciscan priests, they killed them, sometimes after torturing them. They destroyed Catholic images, tore down mission churches, and defiled the vessels of the Catholic Mass. They put an end to marriages on Christian terms. They restored the kivas where Pueblo men had honored their ancestral Kachinas. With Catholic symbols and Spanish practices gone, the Pueblos set out to restore the lives their ancestors had lived.

The enormous, open distances of the Southwest posed a major problem. He solved it by dispatching runners carrying knotted ropes, each separate knot to be untied, one day at a time, until the chosen day, August 11, The runners had to deal with language differences as well. Instead, the Spanish conquerors had found Keres, Tompiros, Tewas, Tiwas, Towas, Piros, and Zuni, all living in similar-looking adobe villages puebloshence the nameas well as Utes, Navajos, and Apaches.


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